Better Living Challenge

Models of Upgrading

Framing the issues

This was research was conducted to further explore and understand: 1) the different ideas and conceptual approaches that exist; 2) built typologies and examples; and 3) the different methods employed in different projects.  The result and eventual output is summarized below and has led to the identification of eleven upgrading models. This document is a high-level summary of the research conducted during January and August 2016.

Research outcomes

The research period extended over two months. The research does not in any way claim to be completely comprehensive, but rather representative. The precedent and case studies uncovered during this research stream were broadly defined along the following three streams:

  • Paper: Compiling and analysing existing ideas, academic research and conceptual approaches on the topic.
  • Practice: Compiling and analysing built precedent on the topic, including actual models and typologies.
  • Place: Looking at local upgrading examples in more detail to understand the different methods employed.

To date, the three streams include more than 200 projects – and counting – from over 25 countries, initially themed according to eleven models. These include 50 unbuilt and 150 built projects.

  • 3 Research Streams
  • 205 Project Case Studies (50 planned/ conceptual; 155 built/ completed)
  • 11 Models / Categories
  • 25 Countries

Models and cases of upgrading

The eleven upgrading models include: 1) Material Innovation; 2) Top Structure; 3) Site and service/ core services; 4) Self-help build and mutual aid projects; 5) Re-blocking/ in-situ upgrading (& other services); 6) Transitional housing/ post-disaster units; 7) Community facilitation/ development; 8) Community-led finance facilities; 9) Public infrastructure (including water and sanitation, drainage and storm-water provision and area-based development); 10) Tenure provision; 11) Multi-scale interventions.